Taiga (Boreal Forest) Biome: Temperature, Climate, Location, Plants, Animals

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Taiga Biome (Boreal Forest) Taiga biome is derived from the Russian word, meaning forest. Despite that fact that it’s the largest terrestrial biome in the world, it’s a cold and lonely place, and many people are not familiar with the name. Although Taiga biome is so cold and remote, humans have had a deep influence … Read more

Arctic Ocean: Climate, Islands, Depth, Location, Currents

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Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest and smallest ocean with a total area of approximately 13,986,000 square kilometers. It is located around the North Pole and is surrounded by some countries like Greenland, Alaska, Canada, Russia and Norway. The ocean is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Bering Strait and the Atlantic … Read more

Formation, Movement and Classification of Air Masses

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What are Air Masses? Air mass is an extremely large body of air in the atmosphere whose properties – temperature, humidity and lapse rate, which is the decrease of atmospheric temperature with height, are largely uniform over an area which can be several hundred kilometers across the surface of the earth. Climate science defines air … Read more

What Causes Seasons and What are Different Seasons?

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What is a Season? Seasons are changes in weather conditions. A season can be defined as the distribution of a calendar year into phases that are marked by changes in temperature, precipitation, vegetation and duration of day and night. The seasons are linked with the position of the Earth in relation to the sun. The … Read more

What is El Niño and What are Causes and Effects of El Niño

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What is an El Niño? El Niño is a natural phenomenon experienced in the equatorial Pacific which causes temporary alterations in the world climate. It is normally characterized by complex and abnormally warm ocean temperatures in the Pacific Ocean in the area near the equator which results in global weather events and sea-surface temperature changes. … Read more

What is the Process of Soil Formation and Factors That Affect Soil Formation?

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What is the Process of Soil Formation? The soil formation process depends upon the presence of new soil material which is either acquired by denudation or deposition. Denudation is the abrasion of present rock material by the action of ice, water or wind. Deposition is the accumulation of new materials that have been eroded from … Read more

Ecosystem – Components and Threats To an Ecosystem

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What is an Ecosystem? Ecosystem is the interconnectedness of organisms including animals, plants, and microbes with each other and their non-living environment. Examples of the non-living aspects of the environment include climate, soil, water, sun, earth, rocks, atmosphere, temperature, and humidity. In an ecosystem, every living organism has an ecological niche. Hence, what makes an … Read more

What is a Biome and What are Major Types of Biomes on Earth?

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What is a Biome? Biomes are a group of ecosystems sharing the same characteristics and are well adapted to the prevailing abiotic factors. Any earth surface that has got a very large ecological system characterized by dominant forms of plant and animal life forms adapted to the prevailing climate and other environmental factors is termed … Read more

Metamorphic Rocks: Formation, Types and Examples

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What are Metamorphic Rocks? Metamorphic rocks are the rocks formed from other rocks. They are sedimentary or igneous rocks that have undergone changes as a result of extreme pressure and heat. The name defines their formation whereby ‘meta’ means change and ‘morph’ means ‘form.’ Hence, metamorphic rocks are those whose forms have been changed through … Read more

Igneous Rocks: Formation, Types and Examples

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What are Igneous Rocks? Igneous rocks form from the cooling of magma – molten materials in the earth’s crust. The terminology Igneous means fire or heat. In this sense, igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) solidifies either underneath the earth crust to form plutonic (intrusive) igneous rocks or on the surface of the … Read more